How to calculate how much will be the electricity bills for your operating electric heater?

E lectricity bill have to be paid for the energy you have utilized in the form of electricity. Electricity company bill you for your energy consumption in kwh. A kwh energy is said to be consumed, if a 1kw consuming device or appratus is stayed turned ON for one hour. This is the simplest definition you can find at various other website too. But there is a something you have to bother about. The electricity bill, for instance a 1HP(745W) motor, can be higher than what the device is consuming. The reason is that often devices or apparatus, like motor, have capacitance and inductance associated with them. Because of these, inductance and capacitance, the power factor is less than one. which results in extra loads to the transmission system and hence, electricity company charges for these unnecessary load. Don't worry if you so not understand power factor at this point of time.In very simple form, remember, the more the power factor, lower will be the reactive power consumtion(A power

How Thermocouples Works?


In Industrial Heating, The name Thermocouple sensors, or simply Thermocouple is not very uncommon. Thermocouples are for long in the market. Even though, with the latest art of technology, various other sensors are made available with different name and technology, Thermocouple are still famous and are employed in large scale to control the temperature.

Working Principle

   In practice a Thermocouple works on the principle of seebeck effect. Seebeck effect is phenomena in which two conductor of different metals, when form junction at two ends, with the two junction so formed held at different temperature, induce a small emf between the two junction which is proportional to the difference between the two junction. For Example, Suppose one has to measure a temperature of a die which have heater fitted within it. Now the die has a hole in which a Thermocouple is inserted. Now the thermal couple with the end tip have one junction at a temperature close to the temperature of the heated die (within some time) and the other, the leading end or the back end, have temperature of the surrounding. Thus with two junction at different temperature, there induce an emf (the seebeck effect) which have direct relation to these difference. Thus more the temperature of the die, the more is the induced emf and the vice versa. These Emf is then read by a controller, which  is then converted into temperature reading by applying appropriate emf vs temperature relation. 

Types of Thermocouple

Thermocouple are classified in to various type with Capital Letters denoting their type. The Classification is done with reference to the metals that form the junctions. There are  J, K, T, & E type which are 'Base Metal' thermocouples, while others are R, S, and B made of 'noble metal'. A detail on the metals that form this types can be found in the supplier data sheet and is out of scope for this post.  


In this post, a discussion is made on thermocouple, their use, their working and their commercial known name, by which these great useful sensors are made available in the market.


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